Hazardous Influence Of Endosulfan On Gills Of Clarias Batrachus Linn


The organochlorine chemical endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-Hexachloro-1,5,5 a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9- methano-2,4,3- benzodioxathiepin-3-oxide) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon which is among the most poisonous pesticides for aquatic life, particularly fish, as well as for that reason has been registered as a top priority toxin by the US Epa. Particularly in developing nations, endosulfan is in general use for bug control in hemp, cotton, sugar cane and veggies. Due to agricultural activities, endosulfan has actually repetitively been reported in surface area waters as well as soil of creating as well as established nations. It is extra hazardous to the fish version of the here and now research, as the fish is a mud dweller and also continues to be in contact to the soil for longer time. Endosulfan is moderately consistent in the soil setting with a reported average field half-life of 50 days. Acute poisoning of endosulfan to fish was reported formerly.

Previous histopathological studies on fishes revealed to contaminants disclosed that fish body organs are reliable signs of water top quality. The gills are important organs in fish to perform respiration, osmoregulation, acid base balance and nitrogenous waste discharging. Fish gills are likewise vulnerable to pollutants in water due to their big surface and exterior place. Because of this, fish gills are thought about to be most suitable signs of water contamination levels. Many investigators have reported the histopathological changes in the gills of various fish types revealed to different pesticides. Nevertheless, there has actually been little info on the histopathological effect of endosulfan on fish gills. For that reason, it was made a decision to establish the histopathological results of gills in a catfish, Clarias batrachus Linn. subjected chronically to endosulfan in the here and now research study.


Adult fish with an ordinary body weight of 0.2 ± 0.03 Kg and also complete length of 20 ± 0.4 centimeters were collected from the neighborhood market. The fish were moved in oxygenated containers to the lab. They were accommodated in glass fish tank at a consistent temperature level (24 ± l ° C) and also pH 7.5 ± 0.3 for 7 days prior to the experiment. Matured tap water was used for acclimation as well as for preparing test services. Water was continually aerated. Fish were fed twice daily with Tubifex tubifex. Technical quality endosulfan (Thiodan ®, 33.70% endosulfan) was given by Hoechst Co.

India Ltd. The fish were separated into two teams and also put in different glass fish tank. 10 fishes were utilized for every team. Group I was subjected to commercial solutions of endosulfan. The small focus checked were 0.5 µg/ L for endosulfan, being the l/12th fractions of the 96h LC50 value. Team II was maintained in pesticide-free water to serve as control. Fifty percent the amount of examination water was renewed every 24 hour. The ordinary values for the water high quality information were, temperature 24 ± l ° C, pH 7.5 ± 0.3, liquified oxygen 7.2 mg/L as well as overall solidity 168 mg/L as CaCO3.

Clarias batrachus exposed to endosulfan did disappoint any kind of alteration in behavioral patterns as well as feeding activity. Likewise, growth was not hampered adhering to exposure to endosulfan, and aside from mucous secretion no macroscopically obvious indications of pathology could be recognized throughout dissection.

Both the speculative and control fish were given up every 15 days for thirty days. Instantly after decapitation the gills were eliminated as well as gone down into liquid Bouin’s liquid. After addiction for 1 day, tissues were dehydrated with a graded series of ethanol, removed in xylene as well as infiltrated in the paraffin. 4-6 µm thick sections were cut on microtome and discolored in Hematoxylin-Eosin. Pathological lesions were examined under optical microscope.


Endosulfan is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide as well as acaricide of the cyclodiene subgroup which functions as a poisonous substance to a wide variety of bugs and termites on call. Although it may likewise be used as a wood preservative, it is utilized mostly on a wide range of food crops including tea, coffee, fruits, and also veggies, along with on rice, grains, maize, sorghum or various other grains (Extoxnet, 1996). It gets in the air, water, as well as soil during its manufacture and usage. It is frequently splashed onto crops and also the spray might take a trip cross countries before it arrive on plants, soil or water. Endosulfan on plants generally breaks down in a few weeks, yet adheres to soil bits and also might take years to entirely break down. By hydrolysis, the anticipated half-lives for the alpha- and also beta-endosulfan isomers were located to be 3.6 days and 1.7 days, respectively. Endosulfan does not dissolve conveniently in water. In surface area water, it obtains attached to dirt fragments drifting in water or attached to soil near the bottom. It can build up in the bodies of animals that reside in endosulfan-contaminated water (ATSDR, 2000). Endosulfan is reasonably persistent in the soil setting with a reported ordinary field half-life of 50 days.

The EPA advises that the quantity of endosulfan in rivers, lakes, and also streams should not be greater than 74 components per billion (74 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows no more than 24 components per million (24 ppm) endosulfan on dried out tea. EPA enables no more than 0.1 to 2 ppm endosulfan on other raw agricultural items. The commercial formulations of endosulfan are 1.88 times more hazardous than its technical products.

The histopathological adjustments were apparent in samplings subjected to endosulfan as well as were not observed in the control fish. After direct exposure, a too much quantity of mucous observed over the gills of online specimens. It has actually been reported that the stress and anxiety triggered by variants in the environment and pathologic representatives induce the proliferation of mucous cells and also boost secretion.

In today study, after 15 days of exposure to 0.5 µg/ L endosulfan, epithelial death, hypertrophy of epithelial cells, rupture of gill epithelium, haemorrhage at primary lamellae, sloughing of the respiratory epithelium and also hypertrophy of epithelial cells were kept in mind. The lifting of the epithelium, oedema, epithelial necrosis, combination of adjacent additional lamellae, as well as haemorrhage at main lamellae were observed in the gills of fish analyzed after 30 days of exposure to 0.5 µg/ L.

Epithelial death and also rupture of gill epithelium are direct deleterious effects of the toxic irritants. The fish’s protection actions are extreme mucous secretion. Lifting of the epithelium, lamellar combination, as well as club-shaped lamellae could be protective in that it diminishes the quantity of at risk gill surface. The histopathological adjustments of gill can lead to hypoxia, respiratory system failing problems with ionic and also acid-base equilibrium.


Firm for Hazardous Substances and Disease Computer Registry [ATSDR] (2000 ). Toxicological Account for endosulfan. Update. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health And Wellness and Human Services, Public Health Solution.

Expansion Toxicology Network [EXTOXNET] (1996 ). Pesticide Details Profiles, files kept and archived at Oregon State University.

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