Language provides interaction with various other participants of culture. It is the reflection of the society to which it belongs. Significant features of the culture can be inferred with the close study of its language. It is the source to move the various aspects of the belief. “Every act of language whether it is composed or talked is a declaration concerning the setting of its author within the social structure in a given society” (Tabouret, 1985). Numerous linguists and also sociologists considering the relevance of language in interpreting the social worths have thought the framework, features, and also purposes of language.
Knowledge of language structure, its feature, and also objectives allows us to recognize communication. It simplifies for the listener to comprehend what’s going on in the speaker’s mind. Parpalea (2011) mentions that communication can not succeed unless the articulation is accompanied by particular ideas of language feature. For the success in communication abilities, the clear idea of the language functions is important (Brown, 2007). The variety of features differs from linguist to linguist regarding his researches and research study yet, I have actually limited my research studies to referential, ideational, and also social functions of language.
Jakobson specifies six functions of language i.e. the referential, poetic, emotive, conative, metalingual, and phatic function. He describes that context is known as referent and interprets this function in 2 ways i.e. it relates to the important things “spoken of” or is associated with an element whose reality value is being attested. The 2nd application of referential function is more important in which a statement is made that could be either real or false. The nature of our everyday language is dialogic as everyone’s contributions are related towards other speakers (Bakhtin, 1986). For that reason in the referential function of language, some info is conveyed to the dialogist.
Halliday stated that language is “suggesting prospective”. “It is creature and also maker of human culture” (Halliday, 2002). He proclaims 3 useful degrees of language i.e. ideational, social, and textual feature. The initial one is ideational in which the speaker expresses his suggestions and experiences. This feature is all about the conceptualizing process in our psychological activities. It helps us to understand what’s going throughout us. It is likewise referred to as the experiential function. The second function i.e. interpersonal is employed when we develop and also maintain social partnerships. Language is mostly a social phenomenon, so apart from helping with in interaction it helps in forecasting the audio speaker in the wanted way. The third feature, textual function fuses the interpersonal and ideational function-based language to create text.
From the above discussion, we find out that the language is never ever aimless; it is always carrying an objective or function in it. The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930 ), nonetheless, provided a brand-new instructions to the language researches and also argued that we should pay more attention to the social problems that make certain language structures feasible. While studying the dynamics of power via language he coined the terms, “social recreation”, “habitus”, and “symbolic physical violence”. He specifies that language is not only a resource of interaction however likewise a device to maintain the class structure. The structure of language is generally related to the social condition of the speaker. The lingual behavior instilled in the members of culture establishes the preset activity or reaction in a certain circumstance. Moreover, it determines that will speak, pay attention, Disrupt, enquire, or suggest etc. language functions as one of the mechanisms made use of for the transmission of cultural worths from one generation to the other. The “social recreation” leads to the “social reproduction” i.e. whenever the existing cultural values are moved to the brand-new generation; the norms of culture are handed down too. The prejudice of the dominant course is moved from generation to generation via language.
Socially individuals are educated to adopt certain linguistic habits and dispositions. These abilities as well as dispositions are named “habitus” by Pierre Bourdieu. He mentions that individuals learn them through the process of imitation. Language methods are subjugated in the very same way wherein the communication is not deliberately structured. As a result of this quality of language, it can be classified as a kind of “symbolic physical violence”. Through language, the norms and also worths of the dominant team are unconsciously imposed upon the subservient team as well as without any physical violence. Slavoj Zizek (2008) also specifies that “symbolic physical violence is located in the signification of language itself. The ways we speak with one another sustain relationships of dominance”.
In other words, the use of language for interaction is not recent. When the linguists and sociologists understood its significance in regards to culture they examined it deeply and also uncovered that definitions are inscribed into words. They determined that there is a particular function or function behind every utterance. There are constantly numerous options for an audio speaker but he opts for one that suits his demands.